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 Taylor polynomial. System of equations for the coefficients. Gottfried Ultimate Fellow     Posts: 789 Threads: 121 Joined: Aug 2007 08/23/2016, 11:25 AM (This post was last modified: 08/23/2016, 01:01 PM by Gottfried.) (05/01/2015, 01:57 AM)marraco Wrote: This is a numerical example for base a=e (...) So you get this systems of equations (blue to the left, and red to the right): Code:[1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1  1]    [ 1]   [e] [0 1 2 3 4  5  6  7  8]    [a₁]   [e.a₁] [0 0 1 3 6 10 15 21 28]    [a₂]   [e.a₂+e/2.a₁²] [0 0 0 1 4 10 20 35 56]    [a₃]   [e.a₃+e.a₁.a₂+e/6.a₁³] [0 0 0 0 1  5 15 35 70]  * [a₄] = [e.a₄+e/2.a₂²+e.a₃.a₁+e/2.a₂.a1²+e/24.a₁⁴] [0 0 0 0 0  1  6 21 56]    [a₅]   [...] [0 0 0 0 0  0  1  7 28]    [a₆]   [...] [0 0 0 0 0  0  0  1  8]    [a₇]   [...] [0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  1]    [a₈]   [...] Quote:It is a non linear system of equations, and the solution for this particular case is: Code:a₀=    1,00000000000000000 a₁=    1,09975111049169000 a₂=    0,24752638354178700 a₃=    0,15046151104294100 a₄=    0,12170896032120000 a₅=    0,16084324512292400 a₆=    -0,02254254634348470 a₇=    -0,10318144159688800 a₈=    0,06371479195361670(...) This is perhaps a good starting point to explain the use of Carleman-matrices in my (Pari/GP-supported) matrix-toolbox, because you've just applied things analoguously to how I do this, only you didn' express it in matrix-formulae. To explain the basic idea of a Carlemanmatrix: consider a powerseries We express this in terms of the dot-product of two infinite-sized vectors where the column-vector A_1 contains the coefficients and the row-vector Now to make that idea valuable for function-composition /- iteration it would be good, if the output of such an operation were not simple a scalar, but of the same type ("vandermonde vector") as the input ( ). This leads to the idea of Carlemanmatrices: we just generate the vectors where the vector contains the coefficients for powers of f(x), such that ... in a matrix getting the operation: or Having this general idea we can fill our toolbox with Carlemanmatrices for the composition of functions for a fairly wide range of algebra. For instance the operation INC and its h'th iteration ADD is then only a problem of powers of P The operation MUL needs a diagonal vandermonde vector: The operation DEXP (= exp(x)-1) needs the matrix of Stirlingnumbers 2nd kind, similarity-scaled by factorials: and as an exercise, we see, that if we right-compose this with the INC -operation, we get the ordinary EXP operator, for which I give the matrix-name B: Of course, iterations of the EXP require then only powers of the matrix B. To see, that this is really useful, we need a lemma on the uniqueness of power-series. That is, in the new matrix-notation: If a function is continuous for a (even small) continuous range of the argument x, then the coefficients in A_1 are uniquely determined. That uniqueness of the coefficients in A_1 is the key, that we can look at the compositions of Carleman-matrices alone without respect of the notation with the dotproduct by V(x) and for instance, we can make use of the analysis of Carlemanmatrix-decompositions like and can analyze directly, for instance to arrive at the operation LOGP : log(1+x)
Now I relate this to that derivation which I've quoted from marraco's post. (05/01/2015, 01:57 AM)marraco Wrote: This is a numerical example for base a=e (...) So you get this systems of equations (blue to the left, and red to the right): Code:[1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1  1]    [ 1]   [e] [0 1 2 3 4  5  6  7  8]    [a₁]   [e.a₁] [0 0 1 3 6 10 15 21 28]    [a₂]   [e.a₂+e/2.a₁²] [0 0 0 1 4 10 20 35 56]    [a₃]   [e.a₃+e.a₁.a₂+e/6.a₁³] [0 0 0 0 1  5 15 35 70]  * [a₄] = [e.a₄+e/2.a₂²+e.a₃.a₁+e/2.a₂.a1²+e/24.a₁⁴] [0 0 0 0 0  1  6 21 56]    [a₅]   [...] [0 0 0 0 0  0  1  7 28]    [a₆]   [...] [0 0 0 0 0  0  0  1  8]    [a₇]   [...] [0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  1]    [a₈]   [...] First we see the Pascalmatrix P on the lhs in action, then the coefficients of the Abel-function in the vector, say, A_1 . So the left hand is To make things smoother first, we assume A as complete Carlemanmatrix, expanded from A_1. If we "complete" that left hand side to discuss this in power series we have It is very likely, that the author wanted to derive the solution for the equation ; so we would have for the right hand side and indeed, expanding the terms using the matrixes as created in Pari/GP with, let's say size of 32x32 or 64x64 we get very nice approximations to that descriptions in the rhs of the quoted matrix-formula. What we can now do, depends on the above uniqueness-lemma: we can discard the V(x)-reference, just writing and looking at the second column of B only we get as shown in the quoted post. So indeed, that system of equations of the initial post is expressible by and the OP searches a solution for A.
While I've -at the moment- not yet a solution for A this way, we can, for instance, note that if A is invertible, then the equation can be made in a Jordan-form: which means, that B can be decomposed by similarity transformations into a triangular Jordan block, namely the Pascalmatrix - and having a Jordan-solver for finite matrix-sizes, one could try, whether increasing the matrix-sizes the Jordan-solutions converge to some limit-matrix A. For the alternative: looking at the "regular tetration" and the Schröder-function (including recentering the powerseries around the fixpoint) one gets a simple solution just by the diagonalization-formulae for triangular Carlemanmatrices which follow the same formal analysis using the "matrix-toolbox" which can, for finite size and numerical approximations, nicely be constructed using the matrix-features of Pari/GP. Gottfried Helms, Kassel « Next Oldest | Next Newest »

 Messages In This Thread Taylor polynomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 04/30/2015, 03:24 AM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by tommy1729 - 05/01/2015, 08:37 AM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 05/01/2015, 09:42 AM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by tommy1729 - 05/01/2015, 09:43 PM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 05/03/2015, 04:46 AM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 05/03/2015, 12:07 PM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by Gottfried - 05/05/2015, 07:40 AM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 05/06/2015, 02:42 PM RE: Taylor polinomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by Gottfried - 05/06/2015, 04:17 PM RE: Taylor polynomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 05/07/2015, 09:45 AM RE: Taylor polynomial. System of equations for the coefficients. - by marraco - 01/14/2016, 12:47 AM

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